1. https://www.gardenguides.com/12214895-facts-about-the-sourwood-tree.html

Native to the southeastern United States, the sourwood tree (Oxydendrum arboreum) derives its name from the flavor of its acidic foliage rather than that of the wood itself. It has a sweet side too, being the pollen source of a honey named after it. Sourwood blooms after most other trees, in late June and July, and is indigenous from lower Pennsylvania to upper Florida. With panicles of midsummer flowers and flaming fall foliage, it can also decorate home landscapes in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 to 9.

Conium maculatum also known the hemlock or poison hemlock, is a highly poisonous biennial herbaceous flowering plant in the carrot family Apiaceae, native to Europe and North Africa according Wikipedia. A poisonous plant, hemlock has a repellent smell when its leaves are crushed, helping to ensure that accidental poisonings don’t occur very often – even livestock studiously avoid it. 


The chestnut oak is a stately giant. Its inner bark, like that of most other oaks , is rich in tannic acid, which is used for tanning purposes. Acorns of chestnut oak are produced singly or in pairs. They are a wildlife staple. The leaves of the swamp chestnut oak are simple. People often use chestnut Cut the tree trunk and large tree limbs into timber rounds and poles if you need chestnut oak wood to serve as carving blocks. Strip off the bark with the aid of the hatchet. If you need the oak tree for boards, load the trunk onto a truck and take it to a lumber mill for cutting.


I’m hoping this is another example of the limestone . I’m really iffy but I know I know I need four pictures. Then I am scarred that this also huckleberry. Huckleberry is a name used in North America for several plants in the family Ericaceae. Some are poisonous, such as deadly nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), which has very high levels of alkaloids. Garden huckleberries are not nearly so poisonous; however, they can sometimes be toxic if eaten raw. Once cooked, however, they are no longer toxic and are far less bitter as well.


2. The first focus is American Chestnut. The American Chest nut it an important tree to the community. The tree is used for a lot of different things for example like fences and the nuts fed the wildlife like squirrels and deer. Its terrible for the animals because the American chestnut are slowly dying off. A parasite that goes y the name Cryphonectria parasitica. According to wikipeida Cryphonectria parasitica is a parasitic fungus of chestnut trees. This disease came to be known as chestnut blight. Naturally found in South East Asia, accidental introductions led to invasive populations of C. parasitica in North America and Europe. According to the article “t polishes off the already-dead tissue, then secretes oxalic acid, a toxin that kills more and more of the chestnut’s cells, feeding the fungus but killing the tree. Carried on the wind, the blight spread an estimated 50 miles a year, tree by tree”(Small wood). There are engineers that are trying to figure out a genetic engineer variety to kill of the parasite which I think makes sense. While there trying to figure out something to fight against it I think they should put the American chestnut on the endangered species and plant more of them. I think they shod plant more of then in a secluded areas like a botanical garden but away from other plants. Hopefully with less contact of other plants and people the tree might survive a little longer. Another way to help the tree is to spread the word especially in the wild fisher/botanist world . I think if the word understood why plants/trees especially the American chestnut is important to us.

The second tree I will focus on is the butternut tree. Just like the American Chestnut tree the butternut is being killed off by a fungus. The fungus name is “Butternut canker, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum is a fungus most likely introduced from outside North America” .The fungus is spread when falling rain splashes the fungus spores from one tree to another, Bergdahl says. But fungus spores can travel far and fast on the bodies of insects, a pattern especially obvious in New Hampshire, where diseased stands are sometimes miles apart. Bergdahl has found sticky fungus spores, sometimes millions of them, on 17 species of insects capable of flying from tree to tree. The fungus infects the trees through buds and leaf scars killing small branches. Spores are washed down the stem by rain, resulting in many stem cankers that eventually girdle and kill infected trees. Just the American chestnut there tying to find something that could fight against the fungus to save trees. I honestly think that is the best way but just like I said for the first tree I think its important people should know and be more aware for hw important are trees are. We can potentially start a go fund me for research projects to help fund our researchers and also plant them in botanical gardens to try to keep the trees going.



3. Fern gemmae are quite large in comparison to spores, typically 0.2-1.0 mm in length and are generally considered too large for long distance wind dispersal which is supported by Ferrer 1990. Gemmae are dispersed by wind , water and even animals. It is supported by the absence of this species north of extent of the last glacial maximum, beyond which is transplant study has shown they are able to survive. The disturbed areas and other substrates suitable within the range of the V. appalachiana frequently remained uncolonized while the species flourishes on seemingly similar substrate close by . Taken together these data suggest that spore dispersal from a fully functioning sporophyte must have been responsible for the current distribution. The truncated range of this species is southern new York likewise indicates that the gametophytes lost their ability to produce mature functioning sporophyte sometimes before the last ice age.

Yes it is possible that the current population of the Appalachian gametophyte are being sustained by long distance dispersal from some tropical sporophyte source can be rejected based on past allozyme studies as well as the truncated range of the v. Appalachian in the southern portion of new York portion of new York. The wide range is most likely that is fully functioning sporophyte of this species existed . The scenario the current distribution would be due solely to spore dispersal with the sporophyte becoming extinct before or during the pleitocenr glaciations. This was supported by the Appalachian gametophytes appetent inability to extend northward beyond the limit of the last glacial mini.

4. My first plant is the cinnamon fern. Cinnamon fern is a native fern which occurs in the moist, boggy ground along streams and on shaded ledges and bluffs.  It typically grows in clumps to 2-3′ tall, but with constant moisture can reach 6′ in height. https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/osmundastrum-cinnamomeum/ . It doesn’t seem people have a lot of interaction with cinnamon fern but Grazing animals, such as cattle, and caterpillars may eat the foliage. Cinnamon Fern is a part of the Osmundaceae family, otherwise referred to as the Royal Fern Family. These ferns are among the oldest known ferns. The fiberous roots of the crown is called ‘osmunda fiber’ and is frequently used as a potting media for orchids and other epiphytes


My second plant is the rein deer lichen . According to wikipedia Cladonia rangiferina, also known as reindeer lichen (cf. Sw. renlav) or grey reindeer lichen, is a light-colored, fruticose species of lichen, belonging to the family Cladoniaceae. It grows in both hot and cold climates in well-drained, open environments. Found primarily in areas of alpine tundra, it is extremely cold-hardy. Also acording to wikipeida The Reindeer Lichen fungi can pair with a variety of algal species to successfully form a lichen. Hereof, what animal eats reindeer lichen? Certainly, many animals eat lichens , including snails, voles, squirrels and snub-nosed monkeys.


Its cute that Sassafras represents a deep, necessary shift in Primary Care.  As a child, Dr. Byrne’s nickname was Sassafras. In herbal medicine, this tree is used medicinally to “uplift the spirit” and “bring light;” her mission is to redefine Primary Care and build a health culture of the following 4 missing ingredients, starting with the Sassafras Group Medical Visit: EMPOWERMENT, JOY, NATURE and COMMUNITY. Its so positive and interesting . The Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia according to wikipeia.

My last plant is the sensictve fern . http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=l300

noclea sensibilis, commonly called sensitive fern, is a large, somewhat coarse, Missouri native, deciduous fern which occurs statewide in wet woods and thickets and in moist soils along streams and springs. Grows up to 4′ tall. Features long-stalked, deeply pinnatifid, bright green, vegetative (sterile) fronds (2-4′ long) with leathery, triangular leaflets (pinnae) which have distinctively netted veins. Shorter, erect, woody-like fertile fronds (to 12″ tall), whose ultimate divisions are bead-like segments, typically brown up in late summer and persist throughout the remaining season and winter. Commonly called sensitive fern because the green vegetative fronds are sensitive to and suffer almost immediate damage from the first fall frost. Also sensitive to drought.I have the information above supporting it but I remember professor explaining to Logan that its called a sensitive fern because they instantly die during the winter .